# Wisconsin 9-12 Framework

## Standards

Standard Description
AP1.a.8.h Analyze a problem and design and implement an algorithmic solution using sequence, selection, and iteration. Lessons
AP1.a.9.h Explain and demonstrate how modeling and simulation can be used to explore natural phenomena (e.g., flocking behaviors, queueing, life cycles). Lessons
AP1.a.10.h (+) Provide examples of computationally solvable problems and difficult-to- solve problems. Lessons
AP1.a.11.h (+) Decompose a large-scale computational problem by identifying generalizable patterns and applying them in a solution. Lessons
AP1.a.12.h (+) Illustrate the flow of execution of a recursive algorithm. Lessons
AP1.a.13.h (+) Describe how parallel processing can be used to solve large computational problems (e.g., SETI at Home, FoldIt). Lessons
AP1.a.14.h (+) Develop and use a series of test cases to verify that a program performs according to its design specifications. Lessons
AP1.a.15.h (+) Explain the value of heuristic algorithms (discovery methods) to approximate solutions for difficult-to-solve computational problems. Lessons
AP2.a.10.h Use user-centered research and design techniques (e.g., surveys, interviews) to create software solutions. Lessons
AP2.a.11.h Integrate grade-level appropriate mathematical techniques, concepts, and processes in the creation of computational artifacts. Lessons
AP2.a.5.i Use mathematical operations to change a value stored in a variable. Lessons
AP2.a.13.h (+) Decompose a computational problem by creating new data types, functions, or classes. Lessons
AP2.a.14.h (+) Develop programs for multiple computing platforms (e.g., computer desktop, web, mobile). Lessons
AP2.a.15.h (+) Implement an Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithm to play a game against a human opponent or solve a problem. Lessons
AP2.a.16.h (+) Demonstrate code reuse by creating programming solutions using libraries and application program interfaces (APIs) (e.g., graphics libraries, maps, API). Lessons
AP3.a.4.h Compare and contrast various software licensing schemes (e.g., open source, freeware, commercial). Lessons
AP3.b.8.h Evaluate and analyze how algorithms have impacted our society and discuss the benefits and harmful impacts of a variety of technological innovations. Lessons
AP3.b.9.h (+) Compare a variety of programming languages and identify features that make them useful for solving different types of problems and developing different kinds of systems (e.g., declarative, logic, parallel, functional, compiled, interpreted, real- time). Lessons
AP3.b.10.h (+) Modify an existing program to add additional functionality and discuss intended and unintended implications (e.g., breaking other functionality). Lessons
AP3.c.3.h (+) Describe how Artificial Intelligence (AI) drives many software and physical systems (e.g., autonomous robots, computer vision, pattern recognition, text analysis). Lessons
AP3.c.4.h Write appropriate documentation for programs. Lessons
AP3.c.5.h (+) Use application programming interface (APIs) documentation resources. Lessons
AP3.c.6.h Use online resources to answer technical questions. Lessons
AP4.a.4.h Demonstrate the value of abstraction for managing problem complexity (e.g., using a list instead of discrete variables). Lessons
AP4.a.5.h Understand the notion of hierarchy and abstraction in high-level languages, translation, instruction sets, and logic circuits. Lessons
AP4.a.6.h Deconstruct a complex problem into simpler parts using predefined constructs (e.g., functions and parameters and/or classes). Lessons
AP4.a.7.h (+) Compare and contrast fundamental data structures and their uses (e.g., lists, maps, arrays, stacks, queues, trees, graphs). Lessons
AP4.a.8.h (+) Critically analyze and evaluate classic algorithms (e.g., sorting, searching) and use in different contexts, adapting as appropriate. Lessons
AP4.a.9.h (+) Discuss issues that arise when breaking large-scale problems down into parts that must be processed simultaneously on separate systems (e.g., cloud computing, parallelization, concurrency). Lessons
AP4.a.10.h (+) Define the functionality of an abstraction without implementing the abstraction. Lessons
AP4.a.11.h (+) Evaluate algorithms (e.g., sorting, searching) in terms of their efficiency, correctness, and clarity. Lessons
AP4.a.12.h (+) Identify programming language features that can be used to define or specify an abstraction. Lessons
AP4.a.13.h (+) Identify abstractions used in a solution (program or software artifact) and reuse those abstractions to solve a different problem. Lessons
AP5.a.6.h Design and develop a software artifact working in a team. Lessons
AP5.a.7.h Demonstrate how diverse collaborating impacts the design and development of software products (e.g., discussing real-world examples of products that have been improved through having a diverse design team or reflecting on their own team's development experience). Lessons
AP5.a.8.h (+) Demonstrate software life cycle processes (e.g., spiral, waterfall) by participating on software project teams (e.g., community service project with real-world clients). Lessons
AP5.a.9.h (+) Use version control systems, integrated development environments (IDEs), and collaboration tools and practices (code documentation) in a group software project. Lessons
AP5.b.3.h Create design teams taking into account the strengths and perspectives of potential team members. Lessons
AP6.a.4.h Use a systematic approach and debugging tools to independently debug a program (e.g., setting breakpoints, inspecting variables with a debugger). Lessons
AP6.b.3.h (+) Evaluate key qualities of a program (e.g., correctness, usability, readability, efficiency, portability, scalability) through a process such as a code review. Lessons
CS1.a.6.h Develop and apply criteria (e.g., power consumption, processing speed, storage space, battery life, cost, operating system) for evaluating a computer system for a given purpose (e.g., system specification needed to run a game, web browsing, graphic design, or video editing). Lessons
CS1.a.7.h (+) Identify the functionality of various categories of hardware components and communication between them (e.g., physical layers, logic gates, chips, input and output devices). Lessons
CS1.b.3.h (+) Explain the role of operating systems (e.g., how programs are stored in memory, how data is organized and retrieved, how processes are managed and multi-tasked). Lessons
CS2.a.4.h Devise a systematic process to identify the source of a problem within individual and connected devices (e.g., research, investigate, problem solve). Lessons
CS3.a.2.h Demonstrate the role and interaction of a computer embedded within a physical system, such as a consumer electronic, biological system, or vehicle, by creating a diagram, model, simulation, or prototype. Lessons
CS3.a.3.h (+) Describe the steps necessary for a computer to execute high-level source code (e.g., compilation to machine language, interpretation, fetch- decode-execute cycle). Lessons
CS4.a.2.h Create, extend, or modify existing programs to add new features and behaviors using different forms of inputs and outputs (e.g., inputs such as sensors, mouse clicks, data sets; outputs such as text, graphics, sounds). Lessons
CS4.a.3.h (+) Create a new artifact that uses a variety of forms of inputs and outputs (e.g., inputs such as sensors, mouse clicks, data sets; outputs such as text, graphics, sounds). Lessons
DA1.a.4.h Convert between binary, decimal, and hexadecimal representations of data (e.g., convert hexadecimal color codes to decimal percentages, ASCII/ Unicode representation). Lessons
DA1.a.5.h Analyze the representation tradeoffs among various forms of digital information (e.g., lossy vs. lossless compression, encrypted vs. unencrypted, various image representations). Lessons
DA1.a.6.h (+) Discuss how data sequences (e.g., binary, hexadecimal, octal) can be interpreted in a variety of forms (e.g., instructions, numbers, text, sound, image). Lessons
DA2.a.4.h Discuss techniques used to store, process, and retrieve different amounts of information (e.g., files, databases, data warehouses). Lessons
DA2.a.5.h (+) Use various data collection techniques for different types of computational problems (e.g., mobile device Global Positioning System (GPS), user surveys, embedded system sensors, open data sets, social media data sets). Lessons
DA2.b.4.h Apply basic techniques for locating and collecting small- and large-scale data sets (e.g., creating and distributing user surveys, accessing real-world data sets). Lessons
DA3.a.6.h Use computational tools to collect, transform, and organize data about a problem to explain to others. Lessons
DA4.a.6.h Create computational models that simulate real- world systems (e.g., ecosystems, epidemics, spread of ideas). Lessons
DA4.a.7.h (+) Evaluate the ability of models and simulations to formulate, refine, and test hypotheses. Lessons
DA4.b.1.h (+) Use data analysis to identify significant patterns in complex systems (e.g., take existing data sets and make sense of them). Lessons
DA4.b.2.h (+) Identify mathematical and computational patterns through modeling and simulation (e.g., regression, queueing theory, discrete event simulation). Lessons
IC1.a.6.h Debate the social and economic implications associated with ethical and unethical computing practices (e.g., intellectual property rights, hacktivism, software piracy, new computers shipped with malware). Lessons
IC1.a.7.h Discuss implications of the collection and large-scale analysis of information about individuals (e.g., how businesses, social media, and government collect and use personal data). Lessons
IC1.a.8.h Compare and debate the positive and negative impacts of computing on behavior and culture (e.g., evolution from hitchhiking to ride-sharing apps, online accommodation rental services). Lessons
IC1.a.9.h Describe how computation shares features with art and music by translating human intention into an artifact. Lessons
IC1.a.10.h (+) Develop criteria to evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of computing innovations on people and society. Lessons
IC1.b.5.h Evaluate the negative impacts of electronic communication on personal relationships and evaluate differences between face- to-face and electronic communication. Lessons
IC1.b.6.h (+) Create a list of practices that individuals and organizations can use to encourage proper use of both electronic and face-to- face communication. Lessons
IC1.b.7.h (+) Evaluate the negative impacts on societal discourse caused by social media and electronic communities. Lessons
IC2.a.3.h (+) Evaluate the impact of equity, access, and influence on the distribution of computing resources in a global society. Lessons
IC2.b.3.h Design a user interface (e.g., web pages, mobile applications, animations) to be more inclusive and accessible, minimizing the impact of the designer's inherent bias. Lessons
IC2.c.5.h Ethically and safely select, observe, and contribute to global collaboration in the development of a computational artifact (e.g., contribute the resolution of a bug in an open-source project platform, or contribute an online article). Lessons
IC2.c.6.h Demonstrate how computing enables new forms of experience, expression, communication, and collaboration. Lessons
IC3.a.4.h Compare and contrast information access and distribution rights. Lessons
IC3.b.5.h Research and understand misuses of private digital information in our society. Lessons
IC3.b.6.h Debate laws regarding an individualâ€™s digital privacy and be able to explain the main arguments from multiple perspectives. Lessons
IC3.c.1.h (+) Design and implement a study that evaluates how computation has revolutionized an aspect of our culture or predicts how an aspect might evolve (e.g., education, healthcare, art/entertainment, energy). Lessons
IC3.c.2.h (+) Debate laws and regulations that impact the development and use of software and be able to explain the main arguments from multiple perspectives. Lessons
NI1.a.6.h Provide examples of personal data that should be kept secure and the methods by which individuals keep their private data secure. Lessons
NI1.a.7.h (+) Explain security issues that might lead to compromised computer programs (e.g., circular references, ambiguous program calls, lack of error checking, and field size checking). Lessons
NI1.b.3.h Compare and contrast multiple viewpoints on cybersecurity (e.g., from the perspective of security experts, privacy advocates, national security). Lessons
NI1.b.4.h Identify digital and physical strategies to secure networks and discuss the tradeoffs between ease of access and need for security. Lessons
NI2.a.8.h Illustrate the basic components of computer networks (e.g., draw logical and topological diagrams of networks including routers, switches, servers, and end user devices; create model with string and paper). Lessons
NI2.a.9.h (+) Explain ways in which the internet is decentralized and fault- tolerant. Lessons
NI2.a.10.h (+) Simulate and discuss the issues (e.g., bandwidth, load, delay, topology) that impact network functionality (e.g., use free network simulators). Lessons
NI2.b.3.h Describe key protocols and underlying processes of internet-based services (e.g., http/https and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) or Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP), routing protocols). Lessons
NI2.c.4.h (+) Evaluate how the hierarchical nature of the Domain Name System helps the internet work efficiently. Lessons
NI2.d.3.h Write a program that performs basic encryption (e.g., shift cipher, substitution cipher). Lessons
NI2.d.4.h (+) Explain the features of public key cryptography. Lessons
NI2.d.5.h (+) Explore security policies by implementing and comparing encryption and authentication strategies (e.g., secure coding, safeguarding keys). Lessons